Van Allen Radiation Belt is a double torch formed of particles of energy (plasma) around Earth, retained by its magnetic field. Under the action of Lorentz electromagnetic forces, these particles describe the spiral trajectories between the two magnetic poles of the Earth. The role of a magnetic trap played by the geomagnetic field has been intrigued since 1907 by Carl Størmer, who also provided the spiral motion of the electrified particles.
The actual discovery of the radiation straps is due to James Van Allen. This, by processing the data transmitted by some of the first Artificial Earth satellites, Explorer 2 and 4, has established the existence of two radiation areas at different altitudes (1958). Of these, the internal radiation belt stretches between 1,000 and 6,000 km altitude and is composed mainly of high energy protons (10-200 megaelectronvolts) and the external radiation belt stretches between 15,000 and 25,000 km and is composed mainly of high energy electrons. Besides these two belts, in 1963, a third radiation belt was discovered, composed mainly of electrons and located at altitudes over 7,000 km.
The study of the radiation belts and the subsequent exploration of the magnetosphere – a region of the peritoneal space in which the action of the geomagnetic field is predominantly – allowed for the theoretical interpretation of their origin and the investigation of the phenomena from the high atmosphere (such as, for example, polar auras). At the same time, the danger of irradiating space crews could be avoided by properly making the shell of the spacecraft.
The Van Allen belt and the Moon flight
Some sceptics, who claim that man has never reached the moon, say that man can not pass this belt because of the strong, fatal radiation for him. But there are some answers given by scientists. They claim that Apollo passed through this belt fast, astronauts being exposed for only a while to radiation. They have not received a dose considered dangerous, at least in comparison with other risks of space missions. According to the conspiracy theory followers, the United States was at the point where they had to demonstrate at all costs that they possessed superior technology to the Soviet one, and the only way they could do it was to send a man to the moon, the prize missing from showcase The Soviet Union.
But did the Americans have the technology needed to transport a human crew to the moon? The answer is one that is disputed even today. Apollo 11 was the first mission whose purpose was to send people and land. Apollo 11 was launched on July 16, 1969. Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Michael Collins, commander of the pilot module, and Edwin Eugen Aldrin, commander of the module, were on board. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first people to step on the Moon’s surface.
Mass media has a strong impact on the influence of the population. Various theories have been released, even books have been written that suggest Americans have not reached the moon in that Apollo 11 mission, or even people have never reached the moon, claiming that images and movies have been tampered with in some laboratories. Some sceptics say that the whole moon program was falsified due to the technology that was too advanced because of the radiation from the Van Allen belt, solar wind, cosmic radiation, and so on. Others claim that the moon arrived, only the moonlighting and images on the Moon were tampered with. Some of the reasons why the US would have falsified the landing would have been: The Cold War, the money, the risk the astronauts were undergoing, and the promise of President Kennedy through his famous speech.
The original recording of the Apollo 11 mission
The transmitted signal was incompatible with commercial TVs, so a regular camera turned to the monitor that was broadcast live on the Big Moon event. What people saw, were the pictures filmed by that room.
Despite some technical difficulties, black-and-white images of the first human step on the moon were transmitted. The images have seen over 600 million people on Earth. But the original recordings are missing. this has created many suspicions among people. After describing the surface “fine as the powder,” Armstrong stepped on the lunar surface and entered history as the first man to reach the moon, saying “a small step for man, a huge step for mankind.” We will present some of the questions that have raised suspicions and some answers that will solve the enigmas to some extent.
Why does the flag move like a wind blow?
“Not being the atmosphere and not being gravity, this should not have happened,” say those who believe that filming was made on the ground. The support column of the flag was shaken, which followed, was a continuation of the oscillation, not the friction with the air as it happens on Earth to dampen the movement. The flag argument does not prove the falsification of the mission. A Newton theory says, “A moving body tends to remain in motion as long as no force is exerted on it.”
Why did not there be any stars in the sky?
The devices at that time were not of the quality of the present ones. The exposure was adjusted for the soil, and for the stars, it would take another exposure period. This is one of the simple answers that can be found in this quote. there was no atmosphere, the sunlight was very intense and covered everything that came from “outside”. NASA officials have argued that sunlight, extremely strong on the surface of the Moon, is capable of obstructing any image of the stars. the same thing happens, American scientists say, when you try to photograph the sky at night in a brightly lit city. The only possibility that the stars become visible on the Moon would be that an astronaut would take pictures on the dark side of the Moon.
Why did not the sand dust rise to the Moon?
Experiments on a single grain of dust help us to understand some of the strange but also complex properties of the lunar dust. The astronauts who went on the moon between 1969 and 1972 were surprised to find out how “sticky” is the lunar dust. Sticking to their costumes and gears, it was a real problem, astronauts said. Many researchers claim that the monthly dust is charged electrically. During a lunar day, intense ultraviolet rays (UV) from the sun hit electrons. The dust grains on the surface of the Moon during a day become positively charged. Eventually, rejection charges become so strong that grains are thrown miles over the Moon until gravity will make them fall back.
But why do lunar sand particles become positively charged when illuminated by ultraviolet rays? If so, which are the most affected, the small or the big ones? And what happens to the dust of the moon when it is charged?
The road to Mars
The most harmful to the human body is the effect of radiation. The space agency has analyzed the data gathered by the Curiosity rover on its flight to the Red Planet and concluded that interplanetary space is a very hostile environment. Space is empty but saturated with charged particles. some come from massive coronal ejections or from solar storms and others are produced by supernovae and are called galactic cosmic radiation. They have different effects on the human body. An astronaut would feel very bad if he hit a wave of solar particles and would not wear a special suit.
Inside the spacecraft, the risk that these particles will affect people is greatly reduced. Galactic cosmic rays, being the result of a star’s explosion, strike much larger energy and penetrate the metal shields of the ship. They are almost impossible to stop. the effects of interplanetary radiation on the human body are not yet well known. Until recently, scientists had little information about how much radiation can pass over the ship’s shell during a journey.
The Curiosity rover changed that. The 2-ton machine is equipped with a huge number of sensors, and for 235 days, as long as the road to Mars, has recorded the level of radiation. The ship in which the rover flew to the Red Planet is similar to the one that will be built for human passenger missions. On average, a radiation level of 1.8 milliseconds per day was recorded. On Terra, the human body is subjected to only 3 milliseconds in a year. In a round trip to Mars, the astronauts would spend almost 360 days on the ship. According to this scientist, the human body would have undergone 662 milliseconds of radiation during this period. Some space agencies allow astronauts to expose to 1,000 milliseconds throughout their careers. NASA’s standards vary by individual, and limits are imposed by age and gender. The American Agency does not increase the risk of cancer by more than 3%.
The level of radiation humans would be exposed to on a journey to Mars would not be lethal. Cancer induction and central nervous system damage are the greatest risks, said Cary Zeitlin, a doctor at the Southwest Research Institute in Colorado.
Developing more efficient anti-radiation shields would help, but only up to a point. water and other hydrogen-containing materials protect against radiation, but “even the best shields would improve the problem by 20-25%,” Zeitler said. So not only the Van Allen belt is problematic, but even the space beyond it. Of course, Mars is farther than the Moon, but the questions remain: how did the Belt cosmonauts and how they resisted in space without being affected in any way if the protection they were receiving was minimal?
Van Allen Belt
One of the greatest puzzles of the world is the torque that forms energy particles around the Earth, also called the Van Allen belts. Since their discovery in 1958, astronomers from all over the world have been trying to understand the source of these particles and what makes them so accelerating. Some particles reach a speed very close to that of light. The inner part of the radiation belt is quite stable, instead, the external part changes shape, dimensions and even composition
In 1963, a third radiation band, composed mainly of electrons, was first observed by scientists. After a few weeks, the belt disappears until 2013 when NASA’s Van Allen particle detection tools detected it again. This third Van Allen belt was observed for only four weeks after which it disappeared again, inexplicably. Radiation belts are at an altitude of 1,000-60,000 km, and the particles are formed inside them and do not come from outside, as originally thought. Data from the Van Allen probes show that the velocities the particles are touching are caused by some electromagnetic waves called “Whistler”.
Many of the telecommunication services are affected by the radiation from Van Allen belts, especially when these electromagnetic waves are formed.
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